# constraint

81

**Budget constraint**— A Budget constraint represents the combinations of goods and services that a consumer can purchase given current prices and his income. Consumer theory uses the concepts of a budget constraint and a preference map to analyze consumer choices.… …82

**Carrier's constraint**— is the observation that air breathing vertebrates which have two lungs and flex their bodies sideways during locomotion find it very difficult to move and breathe at the same time, because: *the sideways flexing expands one lung and compresses… …83

**Primal constraint graph**— In constraint satisfaction, the primal constraint graph or simply primal graph (also the Gaifman graph) of a constraint satisfaction problem is the graph whose nodes are the variables of the problem and an edge joins a pair of variables if the… …84

**Object Constraint Language**— The Object Constraint Language (OCL) is a declarative language for describing rules that apply to Unified Modeling Language (UML) models developed at IBM and now part of the UML standard. Initially, OCL was only a formal specification language… …85

**Participation constraint (ER modelling)**— A participation constraint in ER modelling may be understood as a special case of a multiplicity constraint. The participation constraint requires that an entity participates at least once in a relationship. The multiplicity constraint is… …86

**Cash-in-advance constraint**— The cash in advance constraint (sometimes known as the Clower constraint after American economist Robert Clower)[1] is an idea used in economic theory to capture monetary phenomena. In the most basic economic models (such as the Walras model or… …87

**Natural Constraint Language**— NCL (Natural Constraint Language) is a description language with mathematical logic as syntax. Il adopts Mixed Set Programming as algorithmic framework for modeling and solving problems. Introduction Combinatorial problems are ubiquitous in the… …88

**Hamiltonian constraint**— In loop quantum gravity, dynamics such as time evolutions of fields are controlled by the Hamiltonian constraint. The identity of the Hamiltonian constraint is a major open question in quantum gravity, as is extracting of physical observables… …89

**Gauss' principle of least constraint**— The principle of least constraint is another formulation of classical mechanics enunciated by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1829.The principle of least constraint is a least squares principle stating that the true motion of a mechanical system of N… …90

**Participation constraint**— may refer to:* Participation constraint (ER modelling), in software engineering * Participation constraint (mechanism design), in economics …